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We encourage all authors publishing in Journal of Multiscale Neuroscience to obtain an ORCID identifier to increase visibility of your academic, scientific work.

Potential synergistic effects of Arsenoplatin and metformin on cisplatin-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Demirkan B. Gursel 1 and Wenan Qiang 2

1 Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, and Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL USA

2 Pathology Core Facility, and Department of Pathology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL USA


We aim to investigate the effects of AP-1 and metformin as individual therapeutic agents and as a combination treatment in TNBC cells to better understand the anticancer properties of AP-1 and metformin and evaluate the synergy between the two compounds. We used cisplatin-sensitive and resistant MDA-MB-231, a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, to examine how each drug treatment affects cellular toxicity, autophagy, and superoxide levels and determine if AP-1 and metformin produce synergistic effects and if cisplatin resistance can be overcome through metformin. There are increased cases of breast cancer metastasis to the brain, where brain metastases can develop quickly and significantly reduce overall survival. As the metastatic brain tumors grow, they create pressure on and change the function of surrounding brain tissue. This causes signs and symptoms, such as headaches, personality changes, memory loss, and seizures. We aim that our breast cancer brain metastatic xenograft model can be used to develop novel therapeutic potential.


Jaime F. Cárdenas-García

Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Maryland – Baltimore County
1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore,
MD 21250, USA



The process of infoautopoiesis (info = information; auto = self; poiesis = production), a self-referential, sensory commensurable, recursive and interactive homeorhetic feedback process immanent to Bateson’s difference which makes a difference. Infoautopoiesis as a sensation information-action-sensation... process is at the center of resolving the fundamental problem of information, engaging all humans in their efforts to satisfy their physiological (internal/external) and relational needs, elucidating how they interact with their environment and how these interactions are constitutive of information generation, information exchange, information relations and life.

New insights into holonomic brain theory: implications for active consciousness

E. Alemdar 1,2, R. R. Poznanski 2, L.A. Cacha 2, G. Leisman 3,4 and E. J. Brändas 5

1 Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya Üniversite, 54050 Serdivan/Sakarya, Turkey

Integrative Neuroscience Group, Melbourne, Australia 3145

3 Movement and Cognition Laboratory, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa, Israel 3498838

4 Facultad 'Manuel Fajardo', Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba

5 Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden

This pioneering research on how specific molecules inside our brains form a dynamic information holarchy in phase space, linking mind and consciousness, is provocative and revolutionary. Holonomic is a dynamic encapsulation of the holonic view that originates from the word “holon” and designates a holarchical rather than a hierarchical, dynamic brain organization to encompass multiscale effects in nonecludean space. The unitary nature of consciousness as interconnected stems from a multiscalar organization of the brain. We aim to give a holonomic modification of the thermodynamic approach to the problem of consciousness using spatiotemporal intermittency. Starting with quasiparticles as the minimalist material composition of the dynamical brain where interferences patterns between incoherent waves of quasiparticles and their quantum-thermal fluctuations constrain the kinetic internal energy of endogenous molecules resulting in an informational structure that is coded in the intermittent spikes of the negentropically-derived quantum potential. This indicates that brains are not multifractal involving avalanches but are multiscalar, suggesting that unlike the hologram, where the functional interactions occur in the spectral domain, the spatiotemporal binding is multiscalar because of self-referential amplification occurring via long-range correlative information. The associated negentropic entanglement permeates the unification of the functional information architecture across multiple scales. As such, the holonomic brain theory is suitable for active consciousness, proving that consciousness is not fundamental. The holonomic model of the brain’s internal space is nonmetric and nonfractal, it does not need to use Fourier analysis to decode informational structure, but intermittency spikes due to multiscalar effects of the holonomic brain and is, therefore, a more realistic approach to the platonic models in phase space.

A short review of properties of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons

Henry C. Tuckwell

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide,

Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia

The locus coeruleus is a bilateral nucleus in the pons containing about 1400 to 1500 neurons in rodents, 15000 in monkeys and 32000 or more in humans. In this review, we describe locus coeruleus neurons from many studies. According to some reports, virtually all neurons in the rat locus coeruleus are noradrenergic with few interneurons), as well as in mice and cultured mice and rat cells. Such homogeneity within a nucleus is rare, although the locus coeruleus is not so compact in cats. The diameter of each human locus coeruleus component shown here is estimated from other images by Gersten et al. (2009) to be about 2.7mm. Amazingly, such a relatively small structure exerts such a far-reaching influence on the functioning of the human brain and mind. Its demise is associated with such a large range of pathologies from a few months to several decades.

All Intelligence is Collective Intelligence

J. Benjamin Falandays 1, Roope O. Kaaronen 2, Cody Moser 3, Wiktor Rorot 4, Joshua Tan 5, Vishwanath Varma 6, Tevin Williams 3, and Mason Youngblood 7

1.Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, Brown University

2 Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki

3 Department of Cognitive and Information Sciences, University of California, Merced

4 Interdisciplinary Doctoral School, University of Warsaw

5 Department of Computer Science, Oxford University

6 Department of Collective Behavior, Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior

7 Minds and Traditions Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Geoanthropology

Collective intelligence, broadly conceived, refers to the adaptive behavior achieved by groups through the interactions of their members, often involving phenomena such as consensus building, cooperation, and competition. The standard view of collective intelligence is that it is a distinct phenomenon from supposed individual intelligence. In this position piece, we argue that a more parsimonious stance is to consider all intelligent adaptive behavior as being driven by similar abstract principles of collective dynamics. To illustrate this point, we highlight how similar principles are at work in the intelligent behavior of groups of non-human animals, multicellular organisms, brains, small groups of humans, cultures, and even evolution itself. If intelligent behaviour in all of these systems is best understood as the emergent result of collective interactions, we ask what is left to be called “individual intelligence”? We believe that viewing all intelligence as collective intelligence offers greater explanatory power and generality, and may promote fruitful cross-disciplinary exchange in the study of intelligent adaptive behaviour.

A self-operating mathematical universe (SOMU) using dodecanion manifolds: A theory for consciousness validated by comparing human subject study and artificial brain

Pushpendra Singh 1,2, Jhimli Sarkar 1,3, Parama Dey 1,4, Sounak Sarkar 5, Anindya Pattanaya 5, Sudipa Nag 5, Sudeshna Pramanik 2, Pathik Sahoo 1, Komal Saxena 1,6, Soami Daya Krishnanda 6, Tanusree Dutta 5, Subrata Ghosh 7,8 and Anirban Bandyopadhyay 1

1 International Center for Materials and Nanoarchitectronics (MANA), Research Center for Advanced Measurement and Characterization (RCAMC), NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki-3050047, Japan.

Amity School of Applied Science, Amity University Rajasthan, Kant Kalwar, NH-11C, Jaipur Delhi Highway, Jaipur, Rajasthan 303007, India.

3 Department Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, 721302 West Bengal, India.

4 Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Centre for Translational and Environmental Research (DAICENTER), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India

5 Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management, Indian Institute of Management, Ranchi, India-834008.

6 Microwave Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbag Educational Institute, Agra, Uttar Pradesh 282005, India.

7  Chemical Science and Technology Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, NEIST, Jorhat, 785006 Assam, India.

8 Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, UP 201002, India.

Existing theories of consciousness use variants of bits/qubits as the unit of the brain's information and variants of the Turing machine as integrators of information, both widely used in computers. Though most theories bluntly put that the brain is not a Turing machine, no proposal suggests Turing's alternative. No proposal argues for making decisions with null human intervention, null computation while reading out instructions indirectly is still the hallmark of intelligence. Here, by mapping 200 human brains, isolated and in groups and creating an organic artificial brain, we verify the basic claims of a model self-operating mathematical universe, SOMU, where the distribution pattern of primes or density of primes in integer space estimates the pattern of all possible compositions for an integral number of choices for making decisions. These patterns resemble geometric transformations observed in natural events re-written as the 3D spatial arrangement of clocks or polyatomic time crystals. SOMU protocol models nature and the brain as an assembly of electromagnetic resonators grown within and above from the smallest to the largest spatial scale as a fractal tape machine. Both nature and the brain vibrate as a chain of resonance frequencies whose geometric arrangements follow the distribution of primes, an infinite chain metric that is globally self-similar yet locally non-repeating. SOMU argues for replacing the human role with this metric. By mapping electromagnetic radiations from brain-body surfaces of 200 humans, we found mathematical symmetries of resonance chain as predicted in 2014. Then by self-assembling organic resonators, we created an artificial brain that vibrates like the resonance chain and demonstrates complex cognitive signatures. Communications between the biological and artificial brains suggest that the biological brain holds a minute part of nature's resonance chain. Hence, the brain does not compute; it evolves endlessly for a greater sync with nature's chain, making decisions. Group experiments with multiple human subjects validate twelve dimensions (12D) in a space-time-topology-prime metric of SOMU. Live data-streams show that the brain's unit of information is a polyatomic time crystal that evolves by following new mathematics of 12D multinions (e.g., dodecanions) beyond octonions and quaternions existing for 200 years.

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