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Volume 1 - Issue 2

1. A case study of Kleine-Levin syndrome with decreased intracranial pressure in adolescent female

    Zhang Sumei,   Hao Xinxin and Chen Xuan

                        Department of Neurology, Taiyuan Central Hospital, Shanxi Province, 030009 PR China

We found a rare case of Kleine-Levin syndrome in an adolescent female with decreased intracranial pressure. The patient developed symptoms of decreased appetite, depression and anhedonia. The clinical symptoms were similar to an affective disorder of depression attack since the patient had periodic symptoms of excessive sleep and gluttony, accompanied by an involuntary special "Crouching phenomenon" involving hip and knee flexion while holding her legs tightly and lying on her knees. She was not considered narcoleptic after polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests. Finally, a lumbar puncture revealed low intracranial pressure (65mmH2O). Hypothalamic orexin-A detected in the cerebrospinal fluid was at the lower normal limit. After symptomatic treatment involving fluid infusion and increasing intracranial perfusion pressure, the patient's periodic symptoms and social functioning improved with reduced instances of the special "Crouching phenomenon."

2. Reduced modeling of pacemaker spiking in dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus neurons

      Ying Zhou, Henry C. Tuckwell    and Nicholas J. Penington

        1Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, 1 Pardee Drive, Easton, PA 18042, USA

        2School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia

        3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,

        4Program in Neural and Behavioral Science and Robert F. Furchgott Center for Neural and Behavioral Science

        State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Box 29, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA

Many central neurons, particularly certain brainstem aminergic neurons, exhibit spontaneous and fairly regular spiking with frequencies of order a few Hz. Many ion channel types contribute to such spiking, so accurate modeling of spike generation requires solving very large systems of differential equations, ordinary in the first instance. Since the analysis of spiking behavior when many synaptic inputs are active adds further to the number of components, it is useful to have simplified mathematical models of spiking in such neurons so that, for example, inputs and output spike features trains can be incorporated, including stochastic effects. In this article, we consider a simple two-component model whose solutions can mimic features of spiking in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus and noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. The model is of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo type, and solutions are computed with two representative sets of parameters. Frequency versus input currents reveals Hodgkin type 2 behavior, which is supported by bifurcation and phase plane analysis. The article concludes with a brief review of the previous modeling of these types of neurons and their relevance to serotonergic and noradrenergic involvement studies in certain cognitive processes and pathologies.


3. An interesting case of combined central & peripheral demyelination with antibodies against paranodal protein neurofascin 186

       Zhang Sumei,    Hao Xinxin and Chen Xuan

       Department of Neurology, Taiyuan Central Hospital, Shanxi Province, 030009 PR China

We report the diagnostic process of a rare patient with a combined central and peripheral demyelinating disease with antibodies against paranodal protein neurofascin 186 (anti–NF186)—the patient presented with weakness in both lower limbs. The clinical process and evidence are similar to subacute combined degeneration. However, thoracic spinal MRI shows T1 equal signal, and T2 high signal lesions in thoracic vertebrae 5-7 mainly involve white matter. The Aquaporin 4 antibody of the central nervous system indicates the disease is of an optic neuromyelitis pedigree. The antibodies against paranodal protein neurofascin 186 indicate demyelinating peripheral nerve pathogenesis. The final diagnosis was a combined central and peripheral demyelinating disease based on the results of various examinations. The patient's condition improved after methylprednisolone therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin.

4. A Case of anti-Yo antibody positive subacute cerebellar degeneration presenting as acute cerebrovascular disease in an undiagnosed breast cancer patient

       Zhang Sumei,    Hao Xinxin and Chen Xuan

       Department of Neurology, Taiyuan Central Hospital, Shanxi Province, 030009 PR China

A 41-year-old female patient presented initially with right limb ataxia, which resembled the clinical process of acute cerebrovascular disease. However, no obvious acute infarction was found on Cranial MR2. The patient's symptoms did not significantly improve after treatment with antiplatelet aggregation, stabilizing plate, clearing oxygen free radicals, and improving circulation. The patient was later diagnosed with subacute cerebellar degeneration by detecting Paratumor-related antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Further investigation by PET-CT scan of the whole body revealed a breast tumor.

5.  Potential synergistic effects of Arsenoplatin and metformin on cisplatin-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

       Wenan Qiang1 and Demirkan B. Gursel2

         1 Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, and Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pathology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, Northwestern                 University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL USA

​         2 Pathology Core Facility, and Department of Pathology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine,                         Chicago, IL USA


We aim to investigate the effects of AP-1 and metformin as individual therapeutic agents and as a combination treatment in TNBC cells to better understand the anticancer properties of AP-1 and metformin and evaluate the synergy between the two compounds. We used cisplatin-sensitive and resistant MDA-MB-231, a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, to examine how each drug treatment affects cellular toxicity, autophagy, and superoxide levels and determine if AP-1 and metformin produce synergistic effects and if cisplatin resistance can be overcome through metformin. There are increased cases of breast cancer metastasis to the brain, where brain metastases can develop quickly and significantly reduce overall survival. As the metastatic brain tumors grow, they create pressure on and change the function of surrounding brain tissue. This causes signs and symptoms, such as headaches, personality changes, memory loss, and seizures. We aim that our breast cancer brain metastatic xenograft model can be used to develop novel therapeutic potential.


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