top of page

Small Running Title

Cite this paper as
Principal component analysis on the effect of early morning
awakening in major depressive disorder

Julia R. Higdon and Jonghoon Kang (2024) Principal component analysis on the effect of early morning awakening  in  major  depressive  disorder.   Journal  of   Multiscale   Neuroscience   3(2), 94-97.       




Sleep disturbance is one of the most prevalent symptoms associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A recent article (Wu et al., 2022, Journal of Multiscale Neuroscience 1, 133-139) explored the significant relationship between early morning awakening (EMA), a type of sleep disturbance, and recovery in MDD patients. In the paper, the authors examined the relationship between EMA and the treatment of MDD with twelve neuropsychological parameters. The authors employed two univariate statistical techniques, students’ t-test and ANOVA, to analyze their data. While their analysis derived a meaningful conclusion that EMA may result in a statistically and clinically significant delay in recovery, we found that a multivariate statistical technique, principal component analysis (PCA), extracted additional quantitative information from their study. In this paper, we present quantitative features in the interaction between EMA and the treatment of MDD obtained from PCA.

Keywords: Sleep disturbance; early morning awakening; major depressive disorder; cognition; psychiatry; principal component analysis

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest

Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by Neural Press.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the CC BY 4.0 license.

Disclaimer: The statements, opinions, and data in the Journal of Multiscale Neuroscience are solely those of the individual authors and contributors, not those of the Neural Press™ or the editors(s).

bottom of page